‘Capo in b tanta special’ in Trieste

As the tourist guide says: “Trieste is no longer a place to pass through to somewhere else. It’s its own destination.” How true!

The city is not all memories of a rich mercantile century with its extravagant fin-de-siècle architecture. If one goes to the old Roman theatre and takes the road above it one enters a most attractive area reminiscent of a typical Italian hill town. This is the Colle di San Giusto area and if you carry on walking up the steep slope you eventually reach San Giusto cathedral. But there’s lots to see on the way.

For example there’s the baroque church of Santa Maria Maggiore.

There’s the sweet little Romanesque church of San Silvestro alongside it which is now owned by the Valdensian religious community, one of the oldest protestant sects in existence. (There’s also a Valdensian church in Lucca in Galli-Tassi Street. Our choir-master is a member of that church.).

The San Giusto steep winding streets are a delight and so free of traffic.

Round a corner one comes across the Arco di Riccardo – a real ancient Roman arch. There are different theories why it is called’ Riccardo’. Perhaps because it’s a corruption of the Latin word ‘Cardo’ for main street.

It’s in this area that one comes across the fascinating James Joyce and Italo Svevo museum. It’s so sad that Svevo’s family house in Trieste was bombed in the last year of the war, There are, however, four personal items remaining including the bits of his library that remained:

And his violin.

Svevo’s friend Joyce, who encouraged him to continue writing again, had a good tenor voice and almost considered becoming a singer in Trieste. He accompanied himself on the guitar. I often wonder whether the two ever played together. Guitar and violin is a very good combination and both Svevo and Joyce loved going to the music theatre. Indeed, one of Joyce’s poetry collections is called ‘chamber music.’

The museum is well documented and the curator was very helpful. We shared some photographs of Charlton Church lane where Svevo (or Ettore Schmitz as he was really called) lived when managing his father-in-law’s marine paint factory specially set up in London to supply the British navy.

It’s odd how James Joyce came to Trieste to escape from the constricting family life of Dublin and how Italo Svevo was so happy to come to London and get away from his claustrophobic in-laws in Trieste. As they say the grass is always greener….

Which reminds me that Trieste is also Europe’s coffee capital and ‘La Stella Polare is one caffé where the great litterateurs would meet up and chat over their cups of ‘gocciato’ (Triestine for coffee with a drop of milk in the centre) or perhaps they drank a ‘capo in b’ (an espresso served in a very small glass – B = bicchierino). Remember too that one doesn’t ask for a ‘cappuccino’ in Trieste, it’s ‘caffelatte’ instead (certainly not that ghastly London concoction called ‘latte’ in the UK). I go for a ‘capo in b tanta special’ which is an espresso served in a glass with hot milk and lots of foam and topped with some cocoa powder. Who knows what way Svevo and Joyce enjoyed best their caffé to be served to them? Understandably the young waiter didn’t know!

(Alexandra having her ‘capo in b tanta special’ at Joyce and Svevo’s favourite caffè ‘Stella Polare’).




Love of Literature in Mediaevalle

UFor lovers of literature and poetry there are two unmissable events today in our part of the world. The first is at 5 pm at Shelley House, Bagni di Lucca. It’s the presentation of Enrico Botta’s book, Mal-aria D’Africa, which has been produced by Luca and Rebecca’s publishing house Cinque Marzo.

(Enrico Botta)

Who is Enrico Botta? He’s a Viareggio director and known to the public for his musical ‘Snow White’ and ‘Aenigma’ with Antonio Casanova. Mal-aria D’Africa is Enrico’s first novel and the title clearly alludes to the disease, literally meaning ‘bad air’, a contagion which once proliferated over marshland areas like the Italian Maremma. The novel is about a young entertainer who travels to Africa and, in particular to the beautiful lands of Kenya. Here he becomes seriously ill. Meanwhile an actor thousands of miles away in Milan puts on a replica of the entertainer’s last show. The two events are thus bound together in a strange parallel universe: Italy and Africa.

Regrettably I won’t be able to attend this presentation since a friend and member of that heavenly vocal group Stereotipi who have done so much, through their school and performances, to raise musical standards in our part of the world, Lia Salotti, is, at the same time, arranging a presentation of a book of poems written by her mother Ivana Domenici.

The appointment with poetry is also this Saturday at 5.00 pm in the hall of the former Convent of the Oblate in Borgo a Mozzano. Present will be the poet Ivana Domenici who teaches history at Borgo a Mozzano’s school Borgo a Mozzano.

The book is published by Ama Ducci and enriched with illustrations by Mirco Martinelli. It brings together some forty poems that retrace the author’s life: feelings and emotions and moments. The event will be presented by Gabriele Matraia and Maria Teresa Malerbi, while actors Valentina Gianni and Federico Barsanti will read selections from the book. There’s also going to be a musical accompaniment with Martino Biondi, guitar, Lia Salotti, violin, and Serena Salotti, voice.

I’m so glad that literature, especially, is alive and kicking in the Lucchesia – which reminds me that my  own humble effort will soon see the light of the world after the success of my volume ‘Septet’, publshed last year (See https://books.google.it/books/about/Septet.html?id=4vHRjwEACAAJ&redir_esc=y )





Yielding Mothers

A new series of book presentations and literary encounters has started at Bagni di Lucca’s Shelley House run by Luca and Rebecca. ‘Madri a rendere’ (‘Yielding mothers’) is Beatrice Tauro’s first novel and publication with Cinquemarzo, Luca and Rebecca’s publishing house. The novel tells the story of four women who were friends at university but subsequently lost sight of each other. They find themselves again after ten years and spend a weekend together. During this time memories and regrets are brought up and the four women compare and contrast each other’s’ lives. What is common to the quartet is that each one has made profound decisions which challenge contemporary social stereotypes.

It would be labelling to call ‘Madri a Rendere’ a feminist novel since the term itself is passé and relates to a previous phase in the evolution of female identity but it certainly focuses on essential women’s topics. The chapter headings: ‘Anna, psychology and solitude’, ‘Cecilia, chaos and maternity’, ’Francesca wealth and unhappiness’, Helen Ego and instinct’, give some indication of the topics discussed in the hundred pages of this brief but equally condensed work.

Beatrice Tauro was born in the heart of Abruzzo but, aged nineteen, moved to Rome. She loves travel and cross-cultural encounters. What’s particularly interesting for me is that Beatrice keeps a blog called ‘con altre parole’ (in other words’) where she talks about the Arab and Islamic world through the words of western writers. You can find out more on this aspect of the author’s interest by visiting http://arabpress.eu/author/beatrice-tauro/. There’s also a facebook page on the book at https://www.facebook.com/madriarendere/

(Beatrice Tauro (left) in conversation with Rebecca Palagi at Shelley House, Bagni di Lucca) 

There are further valuable literary encounters planned at Shelley House. Here is the programme for this year so far:





Svizzero’s Greatest Guest

One of Bagni di Lucca’s Hotel Svizzero’s greatest guests (both in mind and in girth) was Alexandre Dumas Senior – he of the ‘Three Musketeers’ and so many other swashbuckling romances. Rumour has it that the hotel’s front entrance had to be enlarged to admit the author’s  waistline into the entrance lobby. I wonder if his bed had to be strengthened as well…


Further distinguished guests have stayed at the hotel including a dear Irish friend. Regrettably, the hotel suffered decadence and has been for some time excluded from the tourist industry.

Imagine my surprise when I saw this garish sign the other day in front of it. The gates were equally painted with a brash turn of violet. The hotel, however, remained its usual neglected self. Just at that moment a very-well preserved veteran of hotel ownership in Bagni di Lucca turned up and I asked him what was going to happen to the Svizzero. He, too, seemed in the blue (or violet) about it.

Let’s hope that something positive happens to this building which has hosted such celebrities in that past and occupies such a central position in the road surrounding the town’s public gardens.

06232016 002 - Copia

As a matter of tittle-tattle Alexandre Dumas was the son of a white Frenchman and an African slave woman from Haiti. Napoleon appointed him as a general and Dumas’ latest book, ‘The Last Cavalier’, was only rediscovered and published in 2005. As with all his other productions it became an instant best seller.

Dumas wrote voluminously. A regrettably deceased friend of mine Robin Buss, had the task of translating ‘The three musketeers’ – he almost had to move out of his home since his translation proofs seemed to occupy half of his floor space! Last but not least, Dumas had over forty mistresses (though not all at the same time I hasten to add). His personal life was, therefore, as energetic as the plots of the wonderfully adventurous books he wrote.

Most important of all, Alexandre Dumas played an essential part in the Italian Risorgimento founding a patriotic paper called ‘Indipendente’ there. At the very least, the comune of Bagni di Lucca should erect a plaque on the hotel where Dumas relaxed during his summer holidays (and probably had a few more liaisons amoureuses with some of the local ladies).


Incidentally, Dumas was only interred in the Pantheon, that hallowed temple of French greats, as recently as 2002. It was a victory for all those who abhor racism in this world – Dumas was a literary Obama of his time.

As then president Chirac said when the great author’s ashes met their final resting place: “With you, we were D’Artagnan, Monte Cristo, or Balsamo, riding along the roads of France, touring battlefields, visiting palaces and castles–with you, we dream.”

06232016 005

PS One of Alexandre’s illegitimate sons was the author of that wonderful novella ‘La Dame Aux Camélias’ which inspired Verdi’s opera ’La Traviata.’


A Sua Immagine

How many of you like the name you were given by your parents? How many of you would like to change it? I know at least one person, now no longer resident here, whose name was identical to that of a famous violet-eyed actress until she changed it to an American Indian one.

I am quite happy with my name except when it’s spelt incorrectly. Francis is me; Frances is my hypothetical sister. It’s so much easier in Italian with ‘Francesco’ and ‘Francesca’. Having said this, I was known at work as ‘Frank’ – a useful distinction separating my private social life from my public work persona.

I’m also happy with the person who first bore my name. He started off as a dissolute happy-go-lucky ladies’ man with an ample store of sometimes naughty troubadour songs which he sang in perfect southern French romance tongue. Everything seemed to go well for him: wine, women, song and plenty of money –if he joined his dad’s merchant business.

Unfortunately, however, for his family (and certainly for his women) he had a lightning revelation which contrasted the pampered life he was leading with the life he felt truly called to follow. Literally stripping himself naked before his father, he finished up poorer than anyone could remember. Emaciated by mortification and suffering, filthy with sores and embracing those with leprotic pustules, considered ripe for the madhouse by one half, yet considered ripe for sainthood by the other half, unwilling or unable to take control of the new movement he had inspired and still today the subject of debate both scholarly and street-wise. A family acquaintance, Zeffirelli himself, confessed to us that he felt near to complete disgust at his hero’s total lack of self-regard when making that iconic film on him: ‘Frate Sole, Sorella Luna.’

I do not need to tell you the name of the Poverello except to state that his name etymologically means ‘from France’ – in particular, southern France, that ’Provence’ redolent of post-classical romance and spirituality. Indeed, Francis used chivalric images of courtly love to woo his Lady Poverty and his Sister Chastity. He spoke of God’s mysterious ways with a language taken from such sources as Guillaume de Lorris’ so-very influential Roman de la Rose. Francis was truly spirituality’s greatest troubadour.

At the same time Francis overturned the conventions of courtly love – turned perfumed roses into gardens of thorns, kissed puss-filled cheeks rather than white-powdered ones, found joy (Letizia – what a wonderful chapter that is in his fioretti) in howling storm-ridden wastelands rather than cossetted inns, sang the delights of plain water to that of rich wines (something more of us should do) and, above all (and not at all self-consciously), modelled his life on that of Christ itself.

Italy is filled with the great Franciscan churches with their very particular architecture. No aisles for these monumental buildings but, rather, huge barn-like structures like that of San Francesco so excellently restored in Lucca (see my post at https://longoio.wordpress.com/2013/07/07/magisterial-monastery/ on the reopening of this extraordinary building): barnlike because the emphasis was on congregation, togetherness, simplicity and, above all, preaching.

Borgo a Mozzano has its own gem-like example of a Franciscan convent complete with aisleless church and cloisters (from claustrum, meaning an enclosed space apart from the turmoil of the world) connecting the spiritual centre to its practical subsidiaries such as the refectory, the chapter house, the dormitory and the workshops and cellars.


The Borgo convent was built in 1523 by a member of the order of Frati Minori (friars minor), the new order founded by Saint Francis, on a hill overlooking Borgo a Mozzano. The original Observants sold it to the Reformed friars of the same order around 1597. (Sadly even petty schism are prevalent in these orders – witness Friar Leo…).The monastery has a beautiful view of the town below, a large vegetable garden with a pergola bedecked with kiwi fruits and is surrounded by a deep forest of oaks. Entering the sweet loggia, which has a chapel on its right, one finds an old cloister, with spacious arches, and twenty nine lunettes painted by Domenico Manfredi of Camaiore illustrating scenes of Saint Francis’ life in chronological, clockwise order. The centre of the cloisters has a well built by Raphael of Controni in 1551.  The cloister area is particularly picturesque at Christmas time when a life-size crib is set up.

The history of the lunettes was that of gradual deterioration due to the elements. When the friars sold the convent in 1983 to the voluntary Misericordia association, which caters for the sick and dying by offering medical assistance and ambulance services (in addition to running a very well appointed rest-home) the priority was to adapt the buildings for their new use as a place for the old and sick. Artistic niceties were relegated to second place. That is, until 2011 when generous assistance from such corporations as the Cassa di Risparmio di Lucca sponsored the restoration of the lunettes, all of which apart from five are now restored to their full splendour.

Here is an example of a lunette before restoration.

06192016 056

And here is another, reinstated as close to its original colours as possible according to the now prevalent rules of conservative restoration.

06192016 058

The twenty nine lunettes have occupied the mind of eminent classicist and hagiographist Christopher Stace for some time ever since he showed them to a Franciscan friar friend of his. Eventually, this interest resulted in a book which Stace modestly calls a guide book but which, in its details and profound research, become rather more than that. In a sense Christopher has invented a new literary genre which could be termed ‘the educated guidebook’.

The presentation of the book, ‘A Sua Immagine’, ‘In His Image’ (yes it’s written in both English and Italian and alludes indirectly to that fine RAI religious programme in addition, of course, to underlining the fact that Saint Francis’ life became increasingly interpreted as a mirror image of that of Christ himself) was the occasion of an extremely pleasant and learned (yes, the two can go together in the right hands!) afternoon at the Convent of Saint Francis. Published by the prestigious Lucchese publishing house of Maria Pacini Fazzi Editore, it is a snip at just twenty euros for over two hundred pages of fine writing and beautiful illustrations. The good thing, too, is that proceeds will go to the Fraternità di Misericordia of Borgo a Mozzano. (I still have with delight the book on the Misericordia by Leonilda Marchesini Rondina, mother of the noted architect and of the musician, with her sweet dedication to me and Sandra.)

The presentation was well organised with interventions by Fr William Short, ofm (order of the friars minor) and professor of Spirituality at the Franciscan college of San Luis Rey in California, who inspired the author to write the book, Fr Fortunato Lozzelli ofm, the energetic new mayor of Borgo a Mozzano, Patrizio Andreuccetti, the ‘Governatore della Misericordia’ Gabriele Brunini and, of course, the author himself. I wish more time had been given to the restoration techniques used in the lunettes under the direction of Lorenzo Lanciani but the book will amply describe that essential aspect of the revaluation of the lunettes.

The main corpus of the guidebook deals with a description and explanation of each of the lunettes. What is particularly significant here is the part that the book De Conformitate Vitae Beati Francesci et Vitam Domini Jesu (how the life of Saint Francis conforms to the life of Christ) by as yet untranslated author Bartolomeo da Pisa (although we are promised a translation by the prof.) influenced the depictions of the frescoes which, it must be remembered, served an especially important purpose at a time when even many potentates were illiterate. (Charlemagne for example, confessed that he couldn’t ‘get the hang of’ reading and writing!)

At the same time, the lunettes are not a cartoon exposition of the life of the ‘little poor one’. If we are looking for assured news facts this is not the place to find them. Indeed, for several of the incidents the sources are dubious to say the least. The point is that the scenes depicted in the lunettes have a symbolic, moral and eschatological significance which overrides any merely factual event. I like to compare this technique with that used by, for example, painters like David particularly in flamboyantly showing Napoleon’s crossing of the Alps.  The Italians are particularly good at this melodramatic, metaphorical way of displaying events. Indeed, when anything came to resemble real life too closely the painter would be chastised. The example of Caravaggio comes to mind when he had to paint two versions of the crucifixion of St Peter because in the first version Peter looked too much like a peasant (which, as a fisherman he clearly had an affinity with).

Nevertheless, there are charming domestic features of the lunettes as in number thirteen depicting Francis’s version of the multiplying of the loaves.  The four Gospels here refer to five loaves and two fish. I can’t see any fish here – perhaps the rather well-fed cat, suckling in turn its own young, in the centre of the refectory has already eaten them! I would suggest that was a good reward for an animal without whose help rather less bread would have been able to be baked due to the scourge of mice so common in mediaeval granaries. Incidentally, although Francis loved animals (and famously preached to the birds) I don’t think he had a particular penchant for cats. One of ours has just brought me the present of a gold-finch which I had to save from its ferocious claws and allow it to fly once more into the blue ethereal sky.

06192016 076

There was no shortage of comestibles after the book’s presentation. The Arcadian gardens of the monastery were completed by tables replete with both savoury and honeyed goodies with plenty of liquids to wash them down. No event in Italy is complete without a rinfresco. Indeed, the rinfresco is a sort of bribe for all good adult children to pay attention to the speeches in order to obtain their foody rewards! I’m sure the attention of the audience was high enough to guarantee them a well-deserved reward. But then the subject was so interesting and the company I was with so worthwhile to be with.

I was truly in my element with my brilliant artist, restorer and archaeologist friends and with the subject so eloquently and, at the same time, so entertainingly written about by prof. Stace.

PS I seem to have written rather a lot on the convent of San Francesco a Borgo a Mozzano, especially on its music, its altars and its restorations. Here are a few of my posts if you still want to know more:







Etc. etc.

Shelley at the House Plus an Australian

Shelley House’s programme of week-end events continues apace. Thanks to the efforts of its proprietors Luca and Rebecca and the support of the comune, together with the assembly of writers that live in its vicinity, Bagni di Lucca will, no doubt, soon be crowned with the title town of poets.

Here is the current programme for May and the summer is filled with more literary events which I will post later.

Bagni di Lucca has already been summer home to many previous poets and authors from all corners of Europe. Just to take a few examples: there’s Heine from Germany, Montaigne from France, Pascoli and D’Annunzio from its own homeland and Shelley, Byron and the Brownings from England.

Shelley and Byron became friends on the shores of Lake Geneva in 1816 where Shelley’s second wife, nineteen year old Mary, wrote that spine-chilling novel Frankenstein (with a little help from her husband, it should be stated). They met again in Italy and both stayed at Bagni di Lucca (though not at the same time).

Robert Browning fully recognized Shelley’s stature as a supreme lyric poet and celebrated him in his early collection of poems Pauline, published in 1833.

Is there any other connection between the triad of poets consisting of Byron, Shelley and Browning apart from Browning’s Pauline and a posthumous respect?

Fascinatingly there is and one has to go to Australia to find it. In 1815 Byron published his Hebrew melodies to considerable acclaim. The melodies include one beautiful poem which has become particularly well-known:

She walks in beauty, like the night

Of cloudless climes and starry skies;

And all that’s best of dark and bright

Meet in her aspect and her eyes.

The Hebrew melodies were published in two editions: one with the lyrics but without the music, the other with both lyrics and music – an edition that has become something of a rarity.

Who wrote the music? The father of Australian music himself, Isaac Nathan. Born in Canterbury, UK in 1790 Nathan was a music teacher, music publisher and opera composer. In 1815 he collaborated with Byron in his first major success, the Hebrew Melodies which adapted ancient Jewish chants to Byron’s lyrics.

Nathan wrote several books on music including the Essay on the History and Theory of Music and On the Qualities, Capabilities and Management of the Human Voice. This last so captivated Robert Browning that he chose Nathan as his music teacher and declared that he’d never had such a good vocal mentor in his life. It would have been most interesting to have had a recording of Browning singing. Evidently, he had a very good voice.

In 1841 Isaac Nathan hit financial difficulties forcing him to emigrate to Australia. There he became choirmaster of St Mary’s cathedral, Sydney and composed many songs including Australia wide and free in 1842. Nathan also composed Australia’s first opera ‘Merry freaks in troublous times’ in 1843.

Isaac Nathan was also a pioneering ethnomusicologist and transcribed the first collection of aboriginal music including Koorinda Braia.

Max Bruch now enters into the connection. The German composer, famous for his lovely first violin concerto (whose popularity he came to loathe), also composed the elegiac Kol Nidrei based on two Jewish chants, the second of which was composed by Isaac Nathan for Byron’s Hebrew Melodies.

‘Only Connect’, as E. M. Forster famously wrote in his preface to Howard’s End. It’s a little astonishing that one has to go down under to find a person that connects the three great English poets who resided in Bagni di Lucca, Shelley, Byron and Browning plus the German composer who became chief conductor of the Liverpool Philharmonic orchestra. But that’s yet another story….







Here’s to Will!

Today is the four hundredth anniversary of the death of William Shakespeare.


The great poet and playwright is part of the life-blood of any person brought up in an English-speaking culture.

It’s not just the amazing variety in Shakespeare’s plays that continually captures us. Our greatest writer enriched the English language with over one thousand seven hundred new words he invented and that we now commonly use. Here’s just a few from A to H. What would we do without them!

  • accommodation
  • aerial
  • amazement
  • apostrophe
  • assassination
  • auspicious
  • baseless
  • bloody
  • bump
  • castigate
  • changeful
  • clangour
  • control (as noun)
  • countless
  • courtship
  • critic
  • critical
  • dexterously
  • dishearten
  • dislocate
  • dwindle
  • eventful
  • exposure
  • fitful
  • frugal
  • generous
  • gloomy
  • gnarled
  • hurry

I was, fortunately, brought up enjoying (rather than enduring) Shakespeare thanks to two of my Secondary school teachers. We queued up all night at the National Theatre (then at the Old Vic) to get tickets for ourselves and our English master for a performance of Larry Olivier as ‘Othello’. I don’t know whether we got better marks in our next essay but it just shows the devotion our teacher instilled in us for Shakespeare that, while he was sleeping comfortably in his bed, we were freezing on ‘The Cut’s’ pavements.


‘Othello, the Moor of Venice’, ‘The Merchant of Venice’, ‘Romeo and Juliet’ ….. Shakespeare isn’t just about the finest writer of the English language. He’s also about Italy. No less than fourteen of his plays have scenes set in Italian cities and some plays are completely set in Italy.

I went through my complete Shakespeare and came up with the following Italian places:


 index 3

Coriolanus. Locations: Rome, Corioli and Antium.




All’s Well that Ends Well. Locations: Rousillon, Paris, Florence, and Marseilles.




Much Ado about Nothing. Locations: Messina

The Winter’s Tale. Locations: Sicily and Bohemia.




The Two Gentlemen of Verona. Locations: Verona, Milan and Mantua.




The Taming of the Shrew. Locations: In Padua and in Petruchio’s villa in the country.




Antony and Cleopatra. Locations: Parts of the Roman Empire including Rome.

Cymbeline. Locations: Britain, Italy.

Julius Caesar. Locations: Rome, Sardis and near Philippi.

Titus Andronicus Locations: Rome.




The Merchant of Venice. Locations: Partly in Venice, and partly at Belmont, the seat of Portia on the Continent.

Othello. Locations: Venice and a sea-port in Cyprus

Twelfth Night. Locations: A city in Illyria, and the nearby sea-coast. (The sea-coast of Illyria was then part of the Venetian Republic).




Romeo and Juliet. (of course!)

Shakespeare set, either in part or exclusively in Italy, almost thirty eight percent, or well over a third, of his plays. No wonder so many Brits have grown up loving Italy. For the Italian settings of the plays cover some of the most beautiful cities in the peninsula.(I’m glad to say I’ve seen all of them except for Anzio and Corioli ).

Furthermore, if one takes away Shakespeare’s ten history plays which, by default, have to be set in English territory (once including northern France) then, out of the comedies, tragedies and romances, over half of Shakespeare’s plays have scenes in Italy: fourteen out of twenty-seven!

Why does Italy feature so prominently in Shakespeare’s plays?  I’m not a specialist but would imagine that the main reasons are that:

  1. The best stories came out of Italy. If Boccaccio inspired Chaucer then Shakespeare got most of his plot ideas from Italian writers who were particularly popular at the time.
  2. Placing settings in Italy got Shakespeare out of censorship trouble. He couldn’t be accused of making fun of certain powerful English lords, for example.
  3. Italians were considered an exotic, curious, devious, cunning, creative and passionate people. (They still are, I believe, in some quarters). There was plenty of opportunity to develop these characteristics in love and war – comedy and tragedy.
  4. Italy was considered to lead the world in fashion and art. (I still imagine it does to a great extent.) For example, in ‘Richard II’ the Duke of York condemns the King’s disregard of the nation’s crisis in favour of “reports of fashions in proud Italy whose manners still our tardy-apish nation limps after in base imitation”.

Now why doesn’t Bagni di Lucca feature in Shakespeare’s play settings? Surely it would have been famous as the town described by Michel de Montaigne in his travel book? (Shakespeare used Montaigne in ‘The Tempest’).  Slightly indirectly it does.


In the film Shakespeare in Love, a young boy is feeding a live mouse to a cat. He is the young John Webster. Shakespeare asks Webster’s opinion on ‘Titus Andronicus’ (a really gory play with hands and tongues cut off). The boy replies “I like it when they cut the heads off. And the daughter mutilated with knives… Plenty of blood. That’s the only writing.”

The real John Webster certainly developed a very macabre type of tragedy. One of his bloodiest products is “The Duchess of Malfi” (short for Amalfi near Naples) in which Cariola, the Duchess of Malfi’s maid, suggest to her when planning an escape (using the polite Italian third person form),” In my opinion, She were better progress to the baths at Lucca”. Later in the play, Daniele De Bosola, described as the ‘Gentleman of the Horse to the Duchess’, says sneeringly to old Castruccio and his old lady: “you two couple, and get you to the wells at Lucca to recover your aches.”


I would give anyone a health warning if they haven’t seen or read the play. At least they could recover at Bagni di Lucca’s Terme if they live locally.

Our new bookshop and art gallery “Shelley House” celebrates the fact that Shelley lived in Bagni di Lucca when he first arrived in Italy in 1818. He was a passionate lover of Shakespeare and his play, ‘The Cenci’, set in Rome, is written in a neo-Shakespearian style.

Looking wider towards the Garfagnana and Castelnuovo di Garfagnana there is a direct connection between that area’s one-time governor, Ludovico Ariosto, and William Shakespeare. The story of Ariodante and Ginevra from Ariosto’s great epic poem Orlando Furioso forms a considerable part of the plot of Much Ado About Nothing.


(Ludovico Ariosto 1474 -1533)

So whether you are lucky enough to live near the river Avon or just a few steps away from the river Lima or the river Serchio I hope you will raise a glass to the Bard (yes, I finally used that awful word) who loved and drew so much inspiration from la bella Italia and, some say, actually visited it. (Some Italians even believe that Shakespeare was Italian but I remain rather more patriotic.)

Stunning Photography at Shelley House

Yesterday, I visited Luca and Rebecca who run Bagni di Lucca’s wonderful new bookshop and art gallery, ‘Shelley House’.

There’s a fresh exhibition of fabulous local photographs. They are sensitively captured by the highly talented Simone Letari who was born in Castelnuovo di Garfagnana in 1971 and where he lives and works. He has received many national and international awards for his photography which he has cultivated from an early age.

Simone’s current exhibition is divided into two themes:’ winter shots’

and ‘on the tracks of the buffardello’ (an elfin-like spirit which haunts the Garfagnana).

See how many places you can recognize. (There’s the abandoned village of Bugnano, for example).

In the bookshop I also met a well-known personality of Bagni di Lucca, Fabio Lucchesi, born in New York in 1927 but who returned with his mother in 1931 to Castelnuovo di Garfagnana where he lived until 1943. Originally director of Bagni di Lucca’s post office, Fabio has been part of three administrations of Bagni di Lucca as councillor and cultural assessor. He’s also a journalist with ‘La Nazione’ and vice-director of the new ‘Corriere di Bagni di Lucca.’ For ten years he’s been president of the local branch of ‘Unitre’ (University of the third age).

Fabio is a truly generous and gentle man with an immense learning. I value him very highly indeed, as do all the citizens of Bagni di Lucca, and have joined him on various trips in beautiful Italy to places like Trieste, Caserta and Procida. It’s largely thanks to Fabio that I have been encouraged to participate in giving talks to Unitre. His daughters, Paola and Laura, run the excellent Borghesi restaurant in Bagni di Lucca, villa, which Fabio owns.

Fabio showed me his new book on a personally experienced war incident at Casabasciana which has recently been immaculately published by Luca and Rebecca’s press ‘Edizioni Cinque Marzo’. (They are the ones who have also published our book of poems and paintings described at https://longoio2.wordpress.com/2016/02/27/septet/ . Have you bought your copy of that one yet?).


I won’t give away too much of Fabio’s story, which is beautifully written in his impeccable Italian prose and can be easily read by anyone with a reasonable knowledge of that beautiful tongue, except to say that it involves the discovery of a common language between friend and enemy, rather like the incident I’ve described (using yet another common language) in my post at https://longoio.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/how-to-avoid-a-massacre/ ).

04152016 029

Failure to learn and use a common language is one of the main reasons for lack of integration in many communities throughout the world. I still remain astonished at how many people from other countries (I won’t say which ones) who have made a permanent or semi-permanent residence in Bagni di Lucca are unable to properly express themselves in Italian. After all, there are free evening classes available in this lovely language at the local school. The only alternative is to stick with people who can speak one’s native language which can be rather limiting socially and certainly does not add to any significant integration with the local population.

For example, there is a particularly obnoxious person who fortunately moved out of our village some years ago now and lives in the wilds of some forest (where he rightfully belongs) who once bluntly stated to me ‘why should I learn Italian properly? I don’t need to speak it.’

I realise I’ve been here over ten years now but yesterday I was actually complemented on my Italian and told that it had radically improved since my first appearance in the town. It may take a little time to learn a language but the rewards are immense! Imagine being able to read Dante, Boccaccio and Petrarch in the original, or just following the news in the papers and the local TV station NOI TV! (Unfortunately I don’t know Russian but I’ve been told that reading such classics as ‘Crime and Punishment’ in that language is an immense experience. Certainly, my little knowledge of Sanskrit – learnt when I lived in India – has been of immense value when reading the wonderful plays of Kālidāsa. They just sound so much better!)

It’s always children that lead the way. Parents here escaping from the horrors of living in Tottenham or New Cross now have brought up children who are ambilingual in a way that their mums and dads truly envy!

The Shelley House bookshop and gallery is constantly receiving new additions of both English and Italian books apart from its changing exhibitions and is always worth a visit during its opening days which are from Thursday to Saturday. It’s certainly become a popular meeting point for anyone interested in reading, writing and cultural affairs. This year is a particularly significant one for Shelley House since exactly two hundred years ago a young eighteen-year old girl was completing a story which has held us all in suspense ever since. It was called ‘Frankenstein’. Her name? Mary Shelley of course! And she was glad to follow the successful sales and collect the royalties of her gripping tale in….Bagni di Lucca!

Allegra con Spirito

Even near his last moment on this earth the little child haunted him. Before setting sail and meeting the storm that would swallow him up in the bay of La Spezia in July 1822 he saw an image of her rising naked from the waves, laughing at him, clapping her hands and beckoning him to follow her.


Last week I saw her too: a little girl playing in the churchyard of Harrow-on-the-Hill giving life among the tombs like the snowdrops and the daffodils rising early to beckon the spring all about me.

02282016 167

And yet she was dead: at just five years old and, since she was the fruit of an unsanctified union, without even a memorial to her – until 1980 – one hundred and fifty eight years later, after she died of malarial fever without her mother or father or step-sister by her in a lonely convent at Bagnacavallo near the venetian marshlands and lagoons.


Remorse evermore overcame the father.


As he wrote to the Countess of Blessington,


(The beautiful Countess Blessington: a portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence)

“While she lived, her existence never seemed necessary to my happiness; but no sooner did I lose her, than it appeared to me as if I could not live without her”

The mother of the little angel ever accused the father of having murdered her.

Happy was her name, ‘Allegra’, and I was near her final resting place by the porch of Harrow’s mediaeval parish church of Saint Mary.

02282016 160

The sky was Italian blue, birds were singing and three crows hovered around the church steeple. I was quite alone with Allegra to reflect on her short, beleaguered life.

Conceived during a night of ecstatic love-making near Lake Geneva such as Claire Clairmont would ever afterwards remind Lord Byron afterwards in her letters, the mother decided to give guardianship of the child, originally named Alba (‘dawn’, also ‘Albé was Claire’s nickname for her famous lover) to Byron, hoping that his Lordship would give the child the means not only to be raised properly but also, in later life, to enter into aristocratic circles and make a fine marriage.


(Claire Clairmont)

By this time, however, Byron had taken a distaste to ever seeing the buxom, temperamental brunette Claire ever again and took Allegra with him to Venice where he joined his Mistress of mistresses the Contessa Teresa Guiccioli.


(Another beautiful Contessa: Teresa Guiccioli)

Allegra was at first a somewhat unruly child but with precocious gifts for mimicry and a singing voice. She could, indeed, have become an actress. She also forgot her English and her first language now became the Venetian dialect – another language really and used to perfection by such great writers as Carlo Goldoni.


For Allegra’s education the capuchin convent of Bagnacavallo was chosen. The nuns’ regime calmed her down a little although she was never seriously punished for breaking the convent rules.

Meanwhile Claire was furious that her daughter was being brought up in a convent. She was told that Allegra was now constantly invoking her saints and the Virgin Mary. Percy Bysshe Shelley, a practising atheist, was also slightly concerned about this religious fervour. He visited Allegra twice and found her health declining.


(Percy Bysshe Shelley)

Allegra, or ‘Allegrina’ as she was called by the convent nuns who doted on her, only saw her father twice and fleetingly at that and her mother nevermore.

In his poem ‘Julian and Maddalo, a conversation’, partly written at Bagni di Lucca, Shelley described Allegra thus:

A lovelier toy sweet Nature never made;
A serious, subtle, wild, yet gentle being;
Graceful without design, and unforeseeing;
With eyes – O speak not of her eyes! which seem
Twin mirrors of Italian heaven, yet gleam
With such deep meaning as we never see
But in the human countenance.

Meanwhile, Claire was becoming ever more worried about her daughter (who would not have recognised or bonded with her anyway). She devised a plan with Shelley to take Allegra away from what she regarded as the unhealthy country round Bagnacavallo to the fresh air and verdant hills of Bagni di Lucca. A letter was forged in the name of Byron to authorise Allegra to be taken away to Bagni di Lucca but, at the last moment, Shelley dropped out of the plan, perhaps realising that his and Mary Shelley’s own experience with bringing up children had been disastrous, with only one surviving into manhood out of four offspring.

Poor Allegra remained at Bagnacavallo. She reminded Shelley to tell her mother she wanted a kiss and a gold dress and would he please beg her “Papa and Mammina to visit her”.

Allegra even wrote, with a little help from the nuns, a note to her dad, Lord Byron: “My dear Papa. It being fair-time, I should like so much a visit from my Papa as I have many wishes to satisfy. Won’t you come to please your Allegrina who loves you so”?


The note remained unanswered.

So many things remain unanswered in our lives as I pondered the mystery of existence and death in Harrow Church’s graveyard.

In it there is also another recollection of Byron: the Peachy tomb upon which the poet would muse when a boy at the school (which now celebrates four hundred years since its foundation) and by which he wrote these lines, half of which are now inscribed on a stone by the moss-covered sepulchre.


Lines Written Beneath An Elm In The Churchyard Of Harrow On The Hill, Sept. 2, 1807

Spot of my youth! whose hoary branches sigh,
Swept by the breeze that fans thy cloudless sky;
Where now alone I muse, who oft have trod,
With those I loved, thy soft and verdant sod;
With those who, scattered far, perchance deplore,
Like me, the happy scenes they knew before:
Oh! as I trace again thy winding hill,
Mine eyes admire, my heart adores thee still,
Thou drooping Elm! beneath whose boughs I lay,
And frequent mused the twilight hours away;
Where, as they once were wont, my limbs recline,
But ah! without the thoughts which then were mine.
How do thy branches, moaning to the blast,
Invite the bosom to recall the past,
And seem to whisper, as the gently swell,
“Take, while thou canst, a lingering, last farewell!”

When fate shall chill, at length, this fevered breast,
And calm its cares and passions into rest,
Oft have I thought, ‘twould soothe my dying hour,—
If aught may soothe when life resigns her power,—
To know some humbler grave, some narrow cell,
Would hide my bosom where it loved to dwell.
With this fond dream, methinks, ’twere sweet to die—
And here it lingered, here my heart might lie;
Here might I sleep, where all my hopes arose,
Scene of my youth, and couch of my repose;
For ever stretched beneath this mantling shade,
Pressed by the turf where once my childhood played;
Wrapped by the soil that veils the spot I loved,
Mixed with the earth o’er which my footsteps moved;
Blest by the tongues that charmed my youthful ear,
Mourned by the few my soul acknowledged here;
Deplored by those in early days allied,
And unremembered by the world beside.

Ironically, this was the same spot where George Gordon Lord Byron lover, warrior, and supreme romantic poet had wished to be buried. (As he wrote “where I once hoped to have laid my own.”)

02282016 180

(The wonderful view looking towards Windsor Castle  from Peachy’s Tomb, Harrow-on-the-Hill)

His wish, however, was refused by the sanctimonious vicar of the time, shocked at the ‘scandalous’ life the poet had led.

Allegra was born in Bath (The English Bagni)

She was brought up at Bagnacavallo (literally horse-wash – perhaps it was a stopping post for coaches and diligences where horses were cooled down) and where she died as this plaque on the convent wall confirms:


Allegra was almost abducted to Bagni di Lucca where Percy Bysshe Shelley, Claire Clairmont, Mary Shelley and George Gordon Byron had all stayed. I wonder whether she would have fared better here. I think so.

Overlooking the superb views of London from Battels Café (where one can get an excellent capuccino)  and near Allegra’s final resting place, quite alone under an aquamarine Mediterranean-like sky I meditated upon the utter strangeness of life just as I had done a week previously by Percy Bysshe Shelley’s monument at Viareggio:

02282016 200



Unbound, you look across the seaside square,
beyond cool lime trees by the promenade,
towards the sea which took your every care
and washed your corpse on shore like broken shard.

From books inside your coat they knew you were
a poet. After, like an Indian sage,
they burnt you on gold sands just to deter
infection: regulations of the age.

Proscribed by man, by sea cast out as well,
your works don’t live in blaze of glorious light;
they seem but little read nor do they sell:
perhaps mankind now lacks ethereal sight.

The highest poets live beyond their time,
their verses are addressed to unborn souls;
the hour’s not right: our thoughts are not sublime,
that’s why your poetry rarely consoles.

Yet moments ripen and your name’s still known
as long as you gaze out across the square
towards the sea and the supreme unknown,
as long as there is sun and moon and air.


PS For reference here’s a genealogical tree for Byron, Shelley and Claire to sort out any confusion:


And here’s a selection of reading about Allegra starting from Iris Origo’s pioneering book written in 1935 and first published by Leonard and Virginia Wolf.


You’ll find plenty of books (and not just on Shelley) at Bagni di Lucca’s own ‘Shelley House.’ For more information see my post at https://longoio2.wordpress.com/2016/01/30/bagni-di-luccas-casa-shelley/


The Angel of Our Great Bagni di Lucca Library

For me the greatest repository of learning, culture and everything that is of the highest value in our civilization is quite clearly contained in libraries. To think that the baths of Diocletian and Caracalla in ancient Rome were not just places one went to have a good scrub down and pick up interesting gossip but were also centres of learning, discussion and reading; to realise that such places as Aquae Sulis in England (today better known as Bath)


and, indeed, all the other great centres of Rome: Ephesus, Alexandra Constantinople and Ephesus were places both of cleansing and culture is, indeed, awesome.


The library of Ephesus still stands. At least its façade does but where are those priceless collections of scrolls that lived there? Have we lost for ever 90% of classical literature? We have to thank the early Muslim dynasties for having transcribed so much of that which might have been lost to us today. It is, indeed, ironic that fanatics professing the faith have recently torched some of the most precious ancient documents in the ancient desert University of Timbuctoo.

In Bagni di Lucca we have both: baths dating to early time and one of the finest and most individual libraries in Italy, indeed the world. In my ‘camera oscura’ interview with Doctor Angela Amadei, the chief librarian of Bagni di Lucca’s unique collection, as part of the on-going Bagni di Lucca festival I was able to find out many detail about the wonderful library heritage our comune.

There had, of course, been circulating libraries in Bagni di Lucca way back in the nineteenth century. Books were borrowed, begged or bestowed on the many forestieri (mainly English-speakers) which visited the baths for health reasons or just to escape the unbearable heat of summer Florence. In the Circolo dei Forestieri the library was housed on its upper floor. Meanwhile the palazzo degli inglesi, better known as the Anglican church, had not had a sermon preached in in since the thirties when, because of gathering war-clouds, most Brits escaped from a country they loved with all their heart. “Tea with Mussolini”, that evocative film by the great Zeffirelli, gives us something of the atmosphere at that time.

Abandoned, and to some extent vandalized, the church was eventually bought by the comune in 1976 but much work was required to restore it as a habitation fit for books (and librarians!). This restoration continues to this day and only recently the original altar of the church has been rehabilitated and re-installed as pride of place in this amazingly renaissance-shaped but gothic-detailed building.

08012015 125

In 2005 our much-appreciated, highly industrious and ever-helpful librarian, Doctor Angela Amadei, arrived on the scene only to find a mammoth task awaiting her. The books she had to manage in a space which is becoming ever more constricted are large in number and contain some very valuable items. The library, indeed, can be divided into two sections: books one can borrow, just by filling in a form and agreeing to abide to the standard library regulations, and the reserve collection which may only be consulted on the spot but from which photocopies may be had. Further to this Angela, through the library network in Tuscany is able to procure books which even our library does not hold, and at very short notice. I have availed myself of this service and have been impressed!

download (2)

Ian Greenlees (about whom I have talked in a previous post at https://longoio.wordpress.com/2014/05/06/r-i-p-ian/ ) left the majority of his collection of twenty thousand books to the library, dedicated to the great local violinist Adolfo Betti,  giving a great gift but also causing immense problems for librarians. Angela is the only full-time (close onto forty hour a week!) librarian and she has been lucky in obtaining financial assistance from the region in her superhuman task of cataloguing a collection which contain rare item such as first editions of Dickens and the Brownings since Greenlees was a great collector of rare books. Already, one tenth of the collection has been catalogued and, when finally completed, it should be a great day for our comune’s library.


Of course, libraries today are not just about silently browsing through shelves and borrowing something from one’s favourite author. They are increasingly becoming places for related social activities. Angela pointed out that the library of Bagni di Lucca is a centre for major conferences organised with the help of Pisa university on a number of incredibly interesting topics, starting, back in 2008, with the Brownings, who spent their summers here, and acting in partnership with Marcello Cherubini’s “Michel de Montaigne” foundation.

The library is a place for both classical and jazz concerts and it hosts a great winter film season (with English subtitle for those whose Italian language skills are not too developed) since Bagni doesn’t have its own cinema. As far as books are concerned, the number of English book is immense and fascinating. You are bound to find a volume to entertain, educate or elucidate among those rich shelves.

The library’s future is being built upon further projects. Already the parents’ evening, where children are encouraged to read as part of a Europe-wide literacy project, has proved most successful. The “silver mouse” project has given undigitised older citizens the confidence to use the computer to communicate, not only to their long-lost relatives, but also to help them write their own stories. I remember holding such classes when I was an I. T. lecturer in the UK and it’s great to know such projects are now advancing in Italy and at Bagni di Lucca.

How are new books selected for the library? It’s largely a collaboration between what the public want and what the librarian feels are books which will hold considerable interest. Funds are limited but Angela has given a great emphasis to children’s literature, especially those below the age of six.

Many of the commune’s children, when seeing our beautiful library for the first time, think it looks just like the library in Harry Potter’ Hogwart’s academy for it high ceiling and gothicky detail does indeed evoke that sort of atmosphere. It also links up with the Potter books’ author in her devoted encouragement to make the ability to read book a natural right for all children. Perhaps she might consider our own Bagni di Lucca’s library in her thoughts on the subject.

download (1)

There is a little problem with the library in the fact that, as a converted Anglican place of worship it is one big space and has no truly defined separate sections like the newly moved library at Borgo a Mozzano, for example. I am sure that a solution will be found to this problem and that a dedicated space devoted just to children will be found.

In the meanwhile, the library has an area that is superbly suited for large events, like conferences. Two important one are due to occur after the summer mayhem. There will be a conference on feminist aspects in nineteenth century literature this autumn and also a major item on that formidable woman of power the countess Matilde di Canossa.


You can find out all about these amazing events and also further details at the library’ site which is at


and also at Angela on her facebook page at


There is also an important fact to mention. The old use of the library as an anglican church has a direct link to the protestant cemetery of Bagni di Lucca about which I have already written several posts, including one at


and also at


plus the amazing find at:


Angela described in considerable detail the miraculous recovery at the cemetery and the devoted task of restoring it (for which benefactors will be amply recognized by Prof. Marcello Cherubini, president of the Montaigne Foundation which has organized so many stimulating study events at Bagni di Lucca’s library and beyond).

We are so lucky to have such an interesting library and one run by such a pleasant and enthusiastic librarian like Angela, a true jewel in the crown of the local administration. As a member for close onto ten years I am so pleased to be one of the (free) subscribers. The library is truly a very important resource and a major reason for living in this part of the world!

download (3)

PS The Comune’s archive is held instead in the school opposite the library.