About Francis

I have lived in a village in the Bagni di Lucca area since 2005. In these posts I describe some of my experiences and activities in this lovely part of the world and my trips beyond. I am a free-lance English language teacher and writer, and enjoy walking, vegetable gardening, raising ducks and rabbits, choir-singing and having a generally good time.

About Trolling

In my schooldays a little magazine was brought out by Nick Totton (who is now well-known as a therapist and poet – see http://www.nicktotton.net/) and friends called ‘Troll’. I had some things published in it – now all vanished into the dust of time. ‘Troll’ was meant to be a provocative and mischievous publication reacting against the orthodox school magazine and it lasted for at least three copies. I wish I knew where I could find one now. I wonder whether anyone reading this post may know?

In those technologically innocent days we little knew that the word ‘troll’ would come to mean something other than the ugly cave-dwelling creature which was depicted as either a giant or a dwarf and generally wearing a pixie-like hat. Now when ‘troll’ is mentioned it brings out for younger people the experience so many of them have had of having their on-line virtual self attacked by maligners. So many have now been bullied (some have even committed suicide) by trolls who spread discord on the internet by posting malicious comments or starting arguments or just by upsetting people in bizarre psychological variations such as posting messages which are completely off-topic or incendiary. Often these messages are sent using email addresses which may only last as long as the message is sent. Try and reply to them and your reply is returned with the message ‘’unknown address’. These trolls will then continue their action, which can only be described as criminal harassment, by inventing another email address to which, naturally one is unable to answer because it’s already been wiped off.

All of us who write a blog have received spam which by-and-large is filtered off. You know the sort of thing. Here’s a typical example: “Internet site an individual’s content %BT% is very well-accepted currently. How could i find out about information technology to start out my own vlog and as well web resource?”

I don’t quite understand the point of spam. It’s a sort of spamdexing; that is it is the deliberate manipulation of search engine indexes for purposes which may range from simple confusion in searching from terns to downright sabotage, infiltration of mal-ware and even phishing.

Trolling is not spamming. It is not generated against a general community of bloggers but is aimed at upsetting, menacing, harassing and threatening individual bloggers for purposes which are only known to those who indulge in an activity which is essentially internet bullying.

Recently I’ve been a victim of trolling and I think it’s important at this stage to let you know what my experience of it is. Forewarned is forearmed, as they say.

I set out here some examples of trolling which I’ve received. Fortunately, since trollers can change their email addresses so frequently, it’s still possible to block them and never allow their comments to be authorised on the web.

Here are three examples.

The first was received on 2017/03/29 at 6:59 pm from email address Semprealforno turisti_x_sempre@gmail.com
79.43.203.46 and says

Gentile Signora,
Abbiamo letto con interesse il vostro affisso… Ci siamo però chiesto perché mancava la firma.
Se mi vuole per favore confermare che viene da voi possiamo pensare a presentarci il giorno di Pasqua in piazza Le ringrazio’

Translated it means ‘Dear Madam, we have read with interest your notice. We asked ourselves, however, why your signature was missing. Please confirm it comes from you so that we may meet on Easter day in the square. Thanks.

This refers to a notice the troll put up in various places in our village of Longoio and the square is the village’s car park. What is disturbing about this one is that it refers to Easter day which is traditionally supposed to be a day of peace and highly valued as such in a still largely Catholic country like Italy.

The second troll was received on  2017/04/13 at 4:12 pm  again from Semprealforno turisti_x_sempre@gmail.com79.51.91.228.

It reads ‘I Heard IT Was THE last one’

and refers to my post at https://longoio2.wordpress.com/2017/04/06/my-wifes-illustrious-ancestor/

In that post I gave a talk about Giovanni Battista Cipriani, a famous eighteenth century artist, painter of the Royal Coach and ancestor of my wife. I have been giving talks to the University of the Third Age of Bagni di Lucca since 2008. As for being the last talk one there were two more speakers to follow in subsequent weeks. (Am I supposed to get done in before I give my next talk I wonder?)

The third one was received on 2017/04/16 at 4:11 pm from nonceranessunoinpiazzaoggi? (meaning t’here was no one in the square’, presumably referring to the message in the first troll.)
turisti_x_sempre@gmail.com 95.247.200.46

It says

?’Ma la donna vestita a stracci faceva parte del gruppo???? (But did the woman dressed in rags form part of the group?)

and refers to my post at https://longoio2.wordpress.com/2017/04/15/easter-pilgrims/

The woman is my wife and she was part of a picture taken with Easter week pilgrims as described in that post. Here is that picture which normal people gave such a favourable response to:

The troller always wants to be found out in the end. It is the crowning moment of self-gratification in his miserable life which is filled with envy and ignorance in equal measure. The fictitious title ‘semprealforno’ has a double significance. It means ‘always at the oven.’ This can refer to the fact that the troller spends much of his time cooking at the barbecue. It can also mean that the troller has a fixation with the death camp ovens of such places as Auschwitz. (I can reveal the troller is German. Being a German is not a condemnation – even if Basil of Fawlty Towers warns us about ‘mentioning the war’ to them. But alluding in jest to the dark past of that nation certainly is).

The troller has in the past poured dirty water over Sandra (true!!) and used bullying tactics with me, especially with his dangerous breed dog. What utterly confirms who he is, however, are his emoticons in at least two posts at the Bagni di Lucca University of the Third Age facebook page at: https://www.facebook.com/UniTre-Bagni-di-Lucca-126411907831457/

Every time there is a mention to me or my wife the ‘angry emoticon’ with his name appears.

As someone who graduated in computer systems and as a former lecturer in the subject for close onto twenty five years I have confirmed, if the evidence wasn’t enough, through the I. P. addresses etc. who this person is.

I will not give his name here. It would give this specimen too much importance. You can find it for yourselves on the Unitre page mentioned above since the troll fails to understand that a ‘like’ etc emoticon can only be removed or changed by the person placing it there. (Perhaps this is a shortcoming of ‘facebook’ which admits ‘there is no option available right now to remove negative emoticon or feeling’).

Why should I have to be writing this post?  I could just shrug the whole thing off and think that the trolling guy is a sad sort of fellow who desperately needs to get a life of his own. However, I feel obliged to write this since, for number one, no-one insults or in any way hurts or disturbs my wife of forty years standing, Sandra, with impunity, and number two, for someone who is both a troller and a teacher of young children at a local school, this behaviour is all the more unacceptable, indeed disturbing, and the children’s head and parents should know about it.

(My last lecture?)

Bagni di Lucca Takes Flight!

Bagni di Lucca’s Villa Gamba has already been the theme of one of my posts where I described the meeting between Giacomo Puccini and Baron Fassini Camossi. It was here that Puccini listened with fascination to certain Chinese melodies played on a carillon (or music box) belonging to his friend the Baron. Camossi had pursued a diplomatic career in China, was a veteran of the 1900 Boxer Rebellions there and probably acquired the box and other souvenirs in China at the notorious “loot auctions” that followed the Boxers’ suppression, when they met at the Baron’s summer house: that same secretive villa Gamba at Bagni di Lucca in 1920. Evidently Adami, the opera’s librettist, was also present.

To find out more about this extraordinary encounter which led to Puccini’s final, sadly incomplete, but certainly greatest opera, ‘Turandot’, you can read my post at:

https://longoio.wordpress.com/2014/01/23/turandots-carillon/

Tomorrow, Tuesday 25th April at 11 am, in the Sala Rosa of Bagni di Lucca’s Circolo dei Forestieri, Villa Gamba will feature again. This is because there will be a presentation of finalists for the Premio Corsena (prize) for 2017. It’s the first national literary competition on the theme of aeronautical history. What’s the Villa Gamba connection this time then? It’s because the full name of the villa is Gamba-Calderara and Mario Calderara (1879-1944), one of Italy’s greatest pioneer aviators, lived there.

Calderara was the first Italian to get a pilot’s license in 1909 and was the builder of Italy’s first flying boat in 1911.

He was the son of the Alpini regiment General Marco Calderara and Eleonora Tantini. Attracted to a life on the ocean wave Mario joined Livorno’s naval academy where he graduated as midshipman in 1901. He became fascinated by the problems of flight and studied avidly the pioneering efforts of Lilienthal and the Wright brothers and corresponded with them.

Calderara began his first aeronautical experiments in 1907 and, on a biplane towed by a ship, managed to reach a height of over 50 feet, almost risking his life. Calderara got to know French inventor Voisin and worked with him on aeroplane design. In 1909 he managed his first unassisted heavier-than-air fight at Buc in France.

The big breakthrough occurred when Calderara and Italy’s aero club invited Wilbur Wright to Rome. Wright gave Calderara some flying lessons and, consequently, Calderara’s flights increased in length.

In 1911 Calderara built his flying boat, the largest in the world and managed to fly three passengers on it in 1912.

In 1917 Calderara started a training school for pilots and became one of the founders of what would become the Italian equivalent of the RAF.

There’s absolutely no doubt that Mario Calderara is yet another feather in the cap of those greats that have established Bagni di Lucca as a centre of past excellence. For example, our town was the first in Italy to have electric street lighting, the first one to found a Scout troop, the first to pioneer hydro-therapy, the birthplace of Puccini’s ‘Turandot’ (as well as the place where most of the maestro’s ‘Girl of the Golden West was composed. It’s great that Bagni di Lucca will now be remembered as the home of one of Italy’s greatest aviation pioneers and founder of its air force.

The programme for tomorrow includes, besides presenting prizes to the finalists, the unveiling of a plaque to the memory of Mario Calderara at the villa Gamba with a visit to the villa itself (an occasion not to be missed!), a lunch at the Circolo dei Forestieri and a conference on the great aviation pioneer who was Mario Calderara. Don’t forget to fly there!

 

 

 

 

 

Where Venus Rose from the Waves

The name itself evokes beauty – Portovenere, the port of Venus – and indeed it is a goddess-like place. Embracing an arm of the immense golf dei Poeti, the gulf of poets with views on one side towards the fantasiose rocky coastline of the Cinque Terre and on the other looking across to the highest of the Apuan Alps, Porto Venere is a place to return to again and again and never be disappointed.

Porto Venere takes its name from an ancient temple dedicated to the Goddess Venus This temple has since been built over by the little church of Saint Peter which stands at the end of the promontory leading to the harbour as if to wish every departing sailor a safe journey and to welcome home all those who have risked the often perilous Tyrhennian sea.

There is yet another connection with Venus in Botticelli’s exquisite picture of the goddess’s birth, now in Florence’s Uffizi gallery. At the right side of the painting you can see part of Porto Venere bay with the islands of Palmaria, Tina and Tinetta which form a little archipelago facing it.  The lovely Venus is none other than Simonetta Vespucci, the girl who lived next door to Botticelli when he stayed there and with whom he fell inexorably in love. Considered the loveliest woman of the time, Simonetta tragically died of typhus in 1476 aged just 23. Botticelli immortalised Simonetta in one of the world’s most iconic and gorgeous paintings.

Here is that painting and my thoughts on it:

THE BIRTH OF VENUS

 

The zephyrs blow: she rises from her shell

while flowered maidens wait with cloaks unfurled.

Within her eyes a thousand heavens dwell,

between her thighs the heart of all the world.

 

It is a gentle sea and winds drop sprays

of leaves on little lapping wavelet crests

and buds and reeds bend to love-circling days

as slender fingers cover perfect breasts.

 

Her gold-spun locks enfold like breeze-tinged foam

until long hair entwines her pubic mount;

those lovely arms entice lost lovers home

to arcane planet’s mantle-hidden fount.

 

Meanwhile, the bay and olive grove awaits

to squeeze sweet juice that always satiates.

 

On this visit to Portovenere we climbed to the top of the Doria castle, surely one of the most formidable defences built by the Venetians. We had the place practically to ourselves, far from the increasing crowds of tourists visiting this heavenly part of the Italian coastline. The views were magnificent and the sea so blue!

We visited the church of San Lorenzo, the patron saint of Portovenere and saw the miraculous log which was cast on the shore filled with sacred treasures and reliquaries.

Byron was just one of the poets who fell in love with this area. One could add Shelley, Montale, D. H. Lawrence, George Sand, the painters J. M. W. Turner and Arnold Boklin, Baroness Orczy, she of the ‘Scarlet Pimpernel’, and Dante himself who describes the coastline in his Divine Comedy (Purgatorio Canto V)..

Our hungry stomachs beckoned us to a charming little osteria on one of the caruggi or narrow streets which characterise Porto Venere where we enjoyed an appropriately fish-based meal. It was, indeed fish Friday, my wife is born in the sign of Pisces and the waters around us are fishermen’s paradise.

Another type of beauty beckoned us as we returned to our starting point – a rally of vintage cars ranging from Bugatti to Bentley to Bristol. Their sinuous curves showed me the entrance towards yet another beautiful chamber in the paradise that is Portovenere.

 

You can see more of Portovenere in my post at

https://longoio2.wordpress.com/2017/01/28/venus-harbour/

 

 

 

 

Italy’s Eel-Pie Island

In Italy, Pasquetta or Easter Monday is traditionally a time to go for a journey ‘fuori le mura’ – outside the walls, which here doesn’t just mean getting out of one’s house but out of one’s town which, like Lucca, is often surrounded by defensive walls.

We chose a local coach firm, largely to experience this aspect of Italian traditional life.  We crossed the Apennines through Renzi’s greatest achievement – an alternative Autostrada del Sole route (variante di Valico) opened in December 2015. It traverses the mountain range almost entirely through tunnels and has cut the journey time from Florence to Bologna by almost an hour. It’s fine on speed, not so good on panoramas. Luckily the old autostrada route has been kept for more scenic travel.

We then travelled through the lush Emilia-Romagna lands with their rows of San Giovese grapevines and dramatic cloud formations.

Our first stop was Ravenna which should by all rights deserve at least a couple of days to visit decently. Although we felt short changed on mosaics we did, at least see some of the extraordinary sights of this city which, at one time in its glorious past, was capital of the Roman Empire.

Theodoric’s’ mausoleum dating from 520 AD is an amazing feat of engineering with a solid stone roof carved out of one stone block weighing tens of tons and originally transported to cap the structure via a ramp.

The Arian baptistery with its beautiful dome mosaic is unique in the world for being the only architectural evidence of a heresy which believed Christ to be literally the son of God i.e. born from the creator and, therefore, subservient to him without any hint of the Trinity as expounded in the Nicaean creed and which is recited by most Christians today. (There’s a tablet inscribed with the Nicaean creed in Bagni di Lucca’s ex-Anglican church, now library).

Dante’s tomb is surely the holiest secular shrine in the Italy and it’s a moving experience to see where the major formulator of the Italian language and the author of the Divine Comedy now rests.

Although bashed about a lot in the Second World War Ravenna retains many characteristic town corners including a lively main piazza.

The biggest event of the ‘scampagnata’, or Italian Easter Monday trip, is, of course, the lunchtime meal which in this case took place in a vast restaurant with no less than five halls. It was quite amazing how quickly and how well we were served with appetizing food. I sometimes think that if cooks and restaurateurs were elected to run the country Italy would turn out to be far better administered! Our lunchtime company was very congenial and remarkably well travelled too.

After lunch we headed for the valli di Comacchio which is an extraordinary area of wetland – probably the largest in Italy and one of the largest in Europe, approaching the Danube delta in dimensions. A continuation of the Venetian lagoon, the area is flat, often marshy, filled with immense brackish lagoons, canals, dykes, clearly a bird-watcher’s paradise and, above all, famous for its eels.

The main town, Comacchio is the centre of eel fishing and production and is a charming place in its own right with a highly photogenic triple bridge and some delightful traffic-free streets.

Half-way along what must be one of the longest porticoed streets I’ve walked along is the entrance to the eel manufactory where eels are dried and canned. The old factory is now a museum with interesting exhibits showing the boats and basket nets used. Among the photographs were stills from a Sophia Loren film I have yet to see, describing the romantic life of an eel-canner and appropriately entitled ‘La Donna del Fiume’ ‘(the lady of the river.’)

It was then time to return home. Since we’d joined the coach at 6 am in Fornoli by the time we reached Bagni di Lucca close to midnight we were ripe for bed-time, falling swiftly into a dream-world where Theodoric, Arianism, eels, lagoons and La Loren were collaged together in ever unbelievable sequences.

 

Election Fever?

Election times are looming. No I’m not talking about that incredible Mayan volte-face in the UK but our own local elections in Bagni di Lucca. If you are resident of the comune then you have every right to vote not just in the European parliament elections (something which may soon be denied to those citizens resident in the UK) but also in your local elections.

All you need to vote is

  1. Proof of residency – your Italian ID card is best
  2. A voting card
  3. Any further proof of identity e.g. an Italian driving license is useful.

What you need to know is

  1. When you can vote (elections are promised for the end of May start of June – final date to be established).
  2. Where you can vote. The polling stations are usually in local schools.
  3. Who to vote for.

You are, in fact voting for the sindaco or mayor who is not, unlike so many UK boroughs, a ceremonial figure but someone more akin to the Mayor of London or the leader of a local council – someone who has the power to change things in the community.

I am certainly not going to tell you who to vote for but if you are entitled to vote and don’t bother then don’t complain about what happens to Bagni di Lucca after the results.

I can, however, tell you something about the political history of Bagni di Lucca. In one word it is conservative with a small c. It’s, indeed, one of the southernmost outposts of right wing politics. One of BDL’s most distinguished visitors in the past was Irene Pivetti. At age 31 Irene was the youngest President of Italy’s chamber of deputies and has been closely associated with  Forza ItaliaMovimento Sociale ItalianoLega NordCentro Cristiano Democratico. In her favour Pivetti did oppose independence for Padania (the Po valley) and was thrown out of her party for her views. A strong Roman Catholic, Pivetti has associated herself with another strong right-winger Salvini in her bid to become mayor of Rome last year.

This right-wing bias in local politics has distinguished BDL from such comunes as Borgo a Mozzano who have tended to be rather more leftish in their ideologies, especially with the highly popular Francesco Poggi who was mayor for two mandates of five years each (the standard period one is mayor) from 2004 to 2014.

What’s important to concentrate your mind on the forthcoming elections is whether the candidates are supported by so-called ‘angels from heaven: i.e. the ‘big’ from the major Italian political factions, or whether they are ‘lista civica’, a special designation which denotes that there are no direct connections to these factions but, instead,  that candidates have a locally promulgated aim to do something about the situation in the comune. This is why ‘lista civica’ always goes with mottoes like ‘andare oltre’ (go beyond), ‘rinascita’ (rebirth) or ‘progetto rinascimento’ (renaissance project) as the present lista civica mayor Massimo Betti christens his project.

Anyway, so far there are four candidates for election as Mayor of Bagni di Lucca for the next five years. It’s a real disappointment that there is no woman among them.  (Although there was Sabatina Antonella for a short while in 2007 when the comune was put under unelected administration).

Here is a list of the candidates:

NAME PHOTO PARTY LINE MOTTO AGE POLITICAL EXPERIENCE
Massimo Betti   Lista Civica ‘Progetto Rinascimento’ Middle Mayor since 2012
Claudio Gemignani   Right of centre with strong backing from the ‘big’ of Forza Italia and Lega Nord Toscana ‘Un Futuro per Bagni di Lucca’ Young Worked as counsellor under two previous administrations
Quinto Bernardi   Right of centre. Oldish Associated with Casa della Libertà.
Paolo Michelini   Lista civica ‘Uniti per cambiare’ Oldish Partito Democratico – Renzian centre-right. Long political administrative experience.

 

Interestingly all four candidates want to carry out the same types of policies among which are:

  1. Big boost for tourism industry in Bagni di Lucca
  2. Better use of limited financial resources
  3. Job creation, especially in tourism, to stop flight of young people from the area.
  4. Improved public transportation and major road repairs
  5. Stopping corruption and tax evasion, particularly from foreign workers and those involved in private B & Bs and unregistered holiday lets.
  6. Enhancement and new use for the wonderful properties the comune owns such as Villa Ada, Villa Fiori etc.

The proof of the pudding is in the eating of course and the purpose of this post is not to influence any of the hard-pressed and worthy citizens of Bagni di Lucca in their voting. It is, however, worth meeting up with the candidates and quizzing them to see how genuine they are in their promises. Regrettably, Italian politicians, like most politicians in the world, are not famous for their consistency and promises. Yet it is precisely these qualities which are most needed to lift Bagni di Lucca up from the enchanted spider-webbed castle it still seems to sleep in oblivious depth.

 

 

 

 

War and Love

On the road from Florence to Pontassieve is what Rudyard Kipling described as a city of silence. It’s the Commonwealth cemetery for those who fell in the campaign to liberate the beautiful country of Italy from the scourge of Nazi-Fascism. I visited it last week during my visit to the city of the Lily. Among the English, Welsh, Irish and Scottish there were many from India and Nepal:

King George V said ‘One Could Truly Say that the whole world is surrounded by the tombs of those fallen in war. I’m convinced that even in the years to come there will be no stronger evidence of the need for peace than this multitude of silent witnesses of the desolation brought by war.’

These words never ring truer than today when over half the news we hear daily is about war. At this moment there are twenty conflicts happening the world which are defined as wars according the Uppsala definition (over one thousand deaths per year). Four of the them have caused over ten thousand deaths last year alone with cumulative fatalities of two million in Afghanistan, one million in Iraq and over half a million in Syria so far.

The cemetery near Florence has a particular resonance, not just because of its silent witnesses but because it collects together Commonwealth soldiers from the allied Fifth and the Eighth armies which worked their way up the Italian peninsula in often impossible situations of steep Apennines and bridge-destroyed rivers. My dad was a tank driver in the Eighth army and was lucky enough to survive although so many of his comrades didn’t make it.

Love and War is an oxymoron of strange power. Indeed, out of war for my father came love as he met and married an Italian Red Cross nurse. I would not be writing this otherwise…

Let us meditate in these difficult times on the names of those who died in these places so that we can today travel and enjoy the wondrous loveliness of Italy in tranquillity and happiness. As I spent my time walking by the lines of tombstones, simply but exquisitely carved out of Carrara marble with the names of those who died and their regiment and some whose name was known only unto God, all lined up in a beautiful greensward between the road and the banks of the Arno, I could only wonder at how the senseless and pitiful activity of war can still continue in so much of the world today.

 

Salt waves shall break but I won’t catch their sound:

the peace that comes to cease all war, all strife

will be a limpid lake in sacred ground

where flowers bud with sempiternal Life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Florence’s (and the World’s) Beautiful Game

Do you love Florence? Are you interested in football? If so have you visited the football museum located at Coverciano in that city? It’s where the Italian Football Association has its headquarters, its training centre and where Pier Luigi Nervi’s architectural masterpiece is located – the first reinforced concrete football stadium ever built, dating from 1931 and where, besides memorable matches, such immortal singers as David Bowie also have given concerts.

Italy boasts a proud history of the beautiful game and has been world champion no less than four times: in 1934, 1938, 1982 and 2006. ‘Gli Azzurri’ (or ‘light blues’ as they are called from the colour of their football jersey) are truly this country’s pride and joy and fully deserve this very well laid-out museum with helpful staff and an excellent archive.

The Museo Del Calcio, which I finally visited last week, is laid out in a historical sequence, starting from the late nineteenth century when athletic clubs used football to develop their members’ skills. The origin of football teams from these clubs is also apparent in the UK in such names as Charlton Athletic, our local south London team which was a firm favourite of the great Italian writer Italo Svevo (‘The Confessions of Zeno’)  when he was managing a paint factory near the college where I taught for a quarter of a century.

It’s so fascinating to follow the history of the Italian national football team and also to gaze in wonder at the jerseys of such greats as Pelé and Maradona.

It’s equally sad, too, to follow the tragedies of Italy’s magnificent international team: for example, the Superga disaster of May 1949 when an aircraft carrying the ‘Grande Torino’ football team, which included most of the country’s international players, crashed in thick fog on the side of the Superga hill near Turin killing thirty one persons, including the great Valentino Mazzola.

I should also mention that my grandfather, an avid sportsman, was a trainer of Inter football team in the years before World War One – something mentioned with pride in his obituary. Inter was founded in 1908 as ‘Foot-Ball Club Internazionale’ since the existing Milan team (originally known as the Milan cricket and football club) did not encourage foreign players. I am old enough to have recorded my grandfather’s account of Inter’s friendly game against Bayern Munich in 1910 (they lost but were applauded for their tenacity against a rather better funded and equipped German team.)

Although the modern history of football stems from England don’t forget that the game actually originated in Italy in mediaeval times. The official rules of the ‘Calcio Storico Fiorentino’ – a heady mixture of football, rugby and wrestling – were first laid down in 1580 by Giovanni de’ Bardi, a Florentine count. This fact is remembered in Florence’s annual traditional ‘Calcio Fiorentino in costume’ which is played on June 24th on Florence’s feast day for its patron saint, St. John the Baptist. Four teams fight it out for the grand finale:   Santa Croce Santo Spirito, Santa Maria Novella and San Giovanni. It’s also a great occasion for putting on one of the city’s most spectacular historical pageants.

Whether it’s the modern game you’re interested in (and especially if you’re a supporter of ‘Fiorentina’ la viola, Florence’s own football team – at present happily eighth in serie A – or whether you like to revel in the Calcio storico Fiorentino played out in the square before Santa Croce church your Florentine experience would certainly not be complete if you haven’t been present at one of the two versions of this emperor of all sports.

The Museo Del Calcio’s web site, including how to get there and opening times, is at:

http://www.museodelcalcio.it/